HYBRID POWERTRAIN SIMULATIONS

As.ing. Valerian CROITORESCU, As.ing. Andrei MACIAC, Prof.dr.ing. Mircea OPREAN, Prof.dr.ing. Alexandru MARIN, Prof.dr.ing. Cristian ANDREESCU 

ABSTRACT: The requirements of the EURO 5 (in the 1st decade of 2009) and EURO 6 norms (maybe in 2012 or later) in Europe and the requirements in US and Japan to reduce the harmful gases and CO2 emissions from vehicles increased the interest of the car manufacturers in developing new technologies for automotive propulsion systems, among which the hybrid propulsion systems have a major importance. The purpose of this paper is to create models and simulate the operation of several hybrid architectures, trying to find out the advantages and disadvantages of each other.The next types of hybrid powertrain solutions has been analyzed: Serial hybrid with clutch between two electric motors, Combined hybrid with clutch between two electric motors, Parallel `through the road` hybrid (TTR), Parallel hybrid with motor-generator `Between two clutches` and also a mixt hybrid powertrain with `power splitting device`.Some standard components and common parameters which remain the same for all hybrid solutions have been considered.

articol aparut in Proceedings of Industrial Simulation Conference' 2008, pag. 133-137, publicatie EUROSIS, http://www.eurosis.org/




MODELISATION ET SIMULATION DU DEMARRAGE D'UN VEHICULE  A BOITE DE VITESSES AUTOMATIQUE AVEC LES BOND GRAPHS

Dragos N. CRUCERU, Andrei N. MACIAC, Valerian CROITORESCU, Géneviève DAUPHIN–TANGUY 

Résumé—L’article présente une méthodologie de modélisation et simulation d’un système de propulsion pour un automobile. Le moteur thermique est couplé aux roues arrière par une boite de vitesses automatique (BVA) à six rapports. L’activité de modélisation et les simulations sont faites en bonds graphs. Pour cet article on modélise les premières secondes du démarrage, y compris le changement montant 1-2, sous charge. Deux versions du passage sont également analysées : sous roue-libre et «clutch-to-clutch». D’autre part, de coté modélisation, ça se peut faire soit en philosophie «stick-slip», soit «all-time-slipping». Le passage est commandé par un système hydraulique qui suivit une consigne de pression dans le frein qui applique.

Mots clés—bond graph, transmission automatique, train épicycloïdal, stick-slip, all-time-slipping.
articol aparut in Proceedings of the Romania Academy, Series A: Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science, nr. 3/2009, Editura Academiei Romane, http://www.ear.ro

 

MODELS OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSMISSIONS FOR FUEL CONSUMPTION STUDIES

Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Florin D. DRAGNE, Andrei N. MACIAC, Ioan M. OPREAN, Nicolae VASILIU 

ABSTRACT: In the last years more and more transmission types are developed in order to respond to the ever-increasing demands on fuel economy and environment protection. Also previously standard configurations are optimized in order to meet the new requirements.
To choose an appropriate configuration in respect with the desired application and to correctly dimensioning it is a difficult task for which the numerical simulation is a very useful tool. In consequence models of transmissions suitable for fuel consumption studies are necessary in order to have a rapid evaluation of envisaged solutions. Nevertheless, the comfort is a key issue that cannot be ignored and the level of modelling must allow a basic comfort evaluation.
This paper aims to show typical modelling and simulation issues that occur in automotive transmissions studies. The models are compared using the 1D multi-domain simulation platform LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "Advanced  Transmission for Low CO2 Vehicles", 4 iunie 2009, IFP, Paris, France, 9 pag., http://www.sia.fr/files/publication/CD-2009-03/Programme%20Transmission.pdf

 

ABS VALVE MODEL SIMPLIFICATION USING LMS Imagine.Lab – AMESim

Florin Daniel DRAGNE, Marc ALIRAND, Ioan Mircea OPREAN, Nicolae VASILIU 

ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to build and validate a model of ABS/ESP valve with LMS Imagine.lab - AMESim. A functional model was obtained by reducing the initial complex model using different model reduction tecniques like activity index and state count. Different levels of valve model were considered in order to keep the time continuity and to evaluate the simplification techniques. Both steady-state and dynamic behavior of the model was validated by experimental data.

articol aparut in Proceedings of the Romania Academy, Series A: Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science, nr. 2/2009, pag. 189-196, Editura Academiei Romane, http://www.ear.ro 

 

STUDY OF HYBRID POWERTRAIN FEASIBILITY BY MEANS OF 1D SIMULATION

Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Andrei N. MACIAC, Roxana Muţu, Ioan M. OPREAN, Nicolae VASILIU 

In the last years more and more propulsion systems are developed in order to respond to the everincreasing demands on fuel economy and environment protection. Developing hybrid drive vehicles is currently a major focus of automotive industry. This is seen as the right solution on the customer's demands for improved fuel economy, increased dynamic performances and good comfort.
This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of employment of 1D modeling and simulation in feasibility study. The application adopted for the exemplification is a passenger car and the software used is LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "Fuel Economy, Safety and Reliability of Motor Vehicles, 2009", 12-14 Noiembrie 2009, Bucuresti, pag. 537-546, ISSN 2067-1083, Editura POLITEHNICA PRESS, http://www.esfa.upb.ro/

 

HYBRID CAR BATTERY MANAGEMENT 

Dorin L. BUREŢEA, Ciprian A. CORMOŞ 

ABSTRACT: Hybrid cars use specific batteries, unlike electric cars. Operating modes are also different. A first set of
secure operating rules is imposed by the battery manufacturer. Manufacturers also recommend measures for efficiency and reliability improvement. Design and practical construction of the vehicle generate other restrictions. An appropriate management of the hybrid car battery will avoid electrical incidents, will extend the battery lifetime and will increase performance. Based on the practical experience, included the one achieved by the activities deployed in the no.166/2007 research contract, management algorithms and considerations are presented. The algorithms are and will be implemented in electronic circuits special designed for interfacing the traction control system and diagnose and operation data loggers.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "Fuel Economy, Safety and Reliability of Motor Vehicles, 2009", 12-14 Noiembrie 2009, Bucuresti, pag. 503-510, ISSN 2067-1083, Editura POLITEHNICA PRESS, http://www.esfa.upb.ro/

 

INFLUENCE OF BATTERY VOLTAGE ON HYBRID VEHICLES PERFORMANCES 

Andrei N. MACIAC, Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Ioan M. OPREAN, Valerian Gh. CROITORESCU, Gheorghe FRĂŢILĂ

ABSTRACT: It is known that the maximum efficiency of the electric motors is increased when the power voltage go
higher. But, is this a condition to improve the global efficiency for a hybrid-electric powertrain? Anyway, more and more producers of hybrid cars try to proceed to higher voltage of their electric part of powertrain.
This paper try to point out which are the advantages of raising the nominal voltage of a hybrid-electric system from 180V to 324V, using the AMESim software. For this reason, the watched parameters are fuel consumption for NEDC cycle, the autonomy in pure electric drive at 50 km/h and 90 km/h, maximum speed for pure electric drive and the acceleration time from 0 to 90 km/h.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "Fuel Economy, Safety and Reliability of Motor Vehicles, 2009", 12-14 Noiembrie 2009, Bucuresti, pag. 521-528, ISSN 2067-1083, Editura POLITEHNICA PRESS, http://www.esfa.upb.ro/

 

SIMULATION OF AN HEV EQUIPPED WITH A VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT ICE 

Valerian CROITORESCU, Andrei MACIAC, Marius BATAUS, Mircea OPREAN, Cristian ANDREESCU

ABSTRACT: The automotive manufacturers intend to improve average fuel economy and low harmful emissions from cars. As the automotive industry is progressing faster than ever it needs systems development which can ensure the new regulations demand to reduce climate change by improving fuel economy. Pollution control devices used on cars cannot reduce the car`s CO2 emissions down to zero, they only can reduce them partially. Less CO2 emissions and better fuel consumption will be obtained by combining more control devices. Hybridelectric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. This allows for a smaller, more efficient engine to be used. In some vehicles, the motor alone provides power for low-speed driving conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient. The variable displacement of the internal combustion engines by cylinder deactivation combined with an electric motor can build a hi tech HEV that better complies with the demands. This paper aims to create models and simulate the operation of a parallel hybrid propulsion system equipped with an internal combustion engine, with 6 cylinders when three of the engine cylinders are deactivated trying to study the behavior of the propulsion system and the engine.  

articol aparut in Proceedings of Industrial Simulation Conference' 2010, publicatie EUROSIS, http://www.eurosis.org/

 

SIMULATION OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE WITH CYLINDERS DEACTIVATION 

Valerian Gh. CROITORESCU, Andrei N. MACIAC, Ioan M. OPREAN,  Cristian N. ANDREESCU

ABSTRACT: During the next few years the automotive manufacturers will be ready to face the new engines providing the EURO 5 and EURO 6 demands. Many configurations of the internal combustion engines have been made with an aim to reduce the harmful gasses and CO2 emissions by decreasing the fuel consumption. The architecture of the propulsion systems and engines developed through many years considers both the spark ignition and diesel engines, combined with a conventional electric motor and a battery package. The hereby paper aims to create models and to simulate the operation of a propulsion system and an internal combustion engine, with 4 cylinders when two of the engine cylinders are deactivated trying to study the behavior of both the propulsion system and the engine in these
cases.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "FISITA 2010", 30 Mai - 4 Iunie 2010, Budapesta, Ungaria, www.fisita2010.com  

 

THE IMPACT OF HYBRID POWERTRAINS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 

Ioan M. OPREAN, Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Andrei N. MACIAC

ABSTRACT: Automotive industry was hit hard by oil crisis and general financial crisis worldwide and now it seeks to overcome his situation by promoting as fast as possible the innovative technical solutions which have the ultimate goal to reduce the fuel consumption and the greenhouse gases emission. For this, the paper presents an analysis of energy losses on car and the measure of mprovements of fuel consumption if is acting on these losses. The practical concerns regarding the implementation of these measures are discussed and the case of hybrid propulsion systems is detailed. Considerations regarding the additional costs for different hybrid architectures are also presented. The global CO2 emissions of a car from middle-class is used to compare the overall efficiency of various propulsion systems.

articol aparut in "Management of Sustainable Development", Volumul 2, Nr.2, 2010, "Lucian Blaga" University Publishing House, Sibiu, Romania, pag. 12 - 18

 

REAL TIME SIMULATION OF DRIVETRAIN LAUNCH DEVICES 

Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Andrei N. MACIAC,  Ioan M. OPREAN, Cristian N. ANDREESCU, Nicolae VASILIU

ABSTRACT: To test and calibrate the transmission control software, or even the entire ECU, it is used a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. For this purpose it is needed a hardware model able to run in real time. The model includes the engine, the transmission and there control units, the vehicle and the driver too. One of the key issues of drivetrain real time simulations is the modeling of launch devices. This paper aims to show an overview of usual launch devices models with emphasis on their compatibility with real time simulation.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "CONAT 2010", 27 - 29 Octombrie 2010, Brasov, Transilvania University PRESS, pag. 229 - 236, ISSN 2069-0401,  http://www.conat.ro/

 

AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCH MODELS FOR REAL TIME SIMULATION 

Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Andrei N. MACIAC,  Ioan M. OPREAN, Nicolae VASILIU

ABSTRACT: One of the key issues of drivetrain real time simulations is the modeling of clutches. This paper aims to show an overview of usual clutch models with emphasis on their compatibility with real time simulation. The models are tested using a torsional model of the powertrain with parameters values typical for medium class passenger cars.

articol acceptat spre publicare in Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A: Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science, http://www.ear.ro

 

Real Time Simulation of Complex Automatic Transmission Models 

Marius V. BĂŢĂUŞ, Andrei N. MACIAC,  Ioan M. OPREAN, Nicolae VASILIU

ABSTRACT: Gear shifts quality is an important part of the driving comfort. In modern electronically controlled automatic transmissions (AT) the logic features of the implemented software have to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range.
To speed up the development cycle of electronically controlled mechanical devices, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is used more and more. For AT the method is mainly used to test and calibrate the transmission control software or even the entire ECU. For this purpose a model of the hardware (a virtual powertrain) able to run in real time is needed. This model must include the engine, the trans-mission, the control units for engine and transmissions, the vehicle and a driver or a manoeuvre gen-erator. Modelling such a system is more difficult if a detailed model of the hydraulic control circuit is required since the usual hydraulic component models are not adapted for real-time simulation.
A high level of physical fidelity is generally necessary to represent a complex system like an AT and this can only be achieved by detailed analysis. A multidomain system (hydraulic, mechanical and electro-mechanical) usually contains a significant number of components. Today's software packages used for simulation enable to construct models that include many details. However for real-time appli-cation it can be relatively difficult to simplify a very detailed model since it is as complex to understand as the real system. In such a case guidelines and help are very appreciated even for experienced engineers.
This paper aims to present typical modeling of modern electronically controlled AT and real-time simulation issues involved in these applications. Models of key components (hydraulic control circuit, clutches, brakes, torque converter etc.) adapted for real-time are described and their use is integrated in a full powertrain model adapted for comfort studies. Guidelines to move from desktop simulation to real-time simulation are also provided.
The highly detailed AT models were developed and tested offline using LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim (AMESim) a 1D multi-domain simulation platform. AMESim also generates the C code that is use in Simulink and can be downloaded on different HiLS targets using Real Time Workshop. A dSPACE platform was used in order to evaluate the benchmark problems and to demonstrate the real-time performance of complex powertrain models.

articol aparut in Proceedings of "Virtual Powertrain Creation, 2010", 30 Noiembrie - 01 Decembrie 2010, Munchen, Germania, ATZ Live